X-Ray Diffraction

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a rapid analytical technique primarily used for phase identification of a crystalline material. Both powder as well as thin film samples can be analysed.

XRD equipment at IASST:

Model: D8 Advance, Manufacturer: Bruker AXS, Germany


  • Phase identification of powder samples.
  • Phase identification of thin films.
  • Crystallite size determination.
  • Grazing incidence XRD
  • X-ray reflectivity analysis

With specialized techniques, XRD can be used to:

  • determine crystal structures using Rietveld refinement.
  • determine of modal amounts of minerals (quantitative analysis).
  • characterize thin films samples by:
  • determining dislocation density and quality of the film by rocking curve measurements
  • measuring superlattices in multilayered epitaxial structures
  • determining the thickness, roughness and density of the film using glancing incidence X-ray reflectivity measurements.
  • make textural measurements, such as the orientation of grains, in a polycrystalline sample.