The Traditional and Modern Drug Discovery and Disease Diagnosis programme focuses on the validation of selected traditional herbal plants/ formulations, which have been selectively preserved in our folklore by the traditional healers, etc. Since the ancient times, different parts of plants have been used in folklore medicine for treating various diseases and have been consumed for their beneficial medicinal properties. In recent times, these natural products have proved to be an important source of drugs. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine and Unani employ natural products and have been practiced all over the world for hundreds or even thousands of years, and they have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. One of the four hotspots of India, North East India is one of the richest repositories of medicinal and aromatic plants in the world. This region is also well-known for the diverse culture of human races, and is home to a large number of ethnic people of India. Research is targeted against metabolic syndrome, which includes diabetes, hypertension, central obesity, hyperlipidemia among others. Past research in the institute has validated claims of local healers on the therapeutic effect of herbs and formulation on diabetes and cardiovascular condition. In this translational research we have integrated the knowledge of experimental biology, natural and synthetic product chemistry, analytical chemistry, pharmacology, biochemistry and computational biology. With this cumulative approach, we have been able to validate traditional knowledge for developing therapeutic products for curing and prevention of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. With state-of-the-art laboratory facility and high-end instruments, few other research of value in medical application is also being carried out.